Black Wood Borer Wasp (Trypoxylon figulus) ♀︎♂︎

Last update: 6 June 2022
SPECIES: Black Wood Borer Wasp (Trypoxylon figulus)
GENUS: TRYPOXYLON
FAMILY: CRABRONIDAE



OBSERVATION:
2021-VII-032016-VI-12

YEARS:
20162021

MONTHS:
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec


Official name:

Synonyms:

Trypoxylon figulus [1]


see more on: www.gbif.org

Etymology:

figulus

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), imago
Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎

CONTENTS

1. Distribution
2. Behaviour
3. Plant relations
4. Prey relations
5. Parasitic relations
6. Identification

 

1. DISTRIBUTION

Trypoxylon figulus is an uncommon wasp [2] that occurs throughout the Netherlands [3].

Garden species

The species is yearly returning guest in larger numbers in our garden.

2. BEHAVIOUR

2.1. ACTIVITY

The species is active from half April to half october [3].

More generations per year are possible [5].

2.2. DEVELOPMENT

Nest

The females of this hypergeic species gnaw nests in marrow of natural tube-like structures like plant stemms [14], but also in abandoned insect burrows [16], cavities in masonry [12] and thatched roofs [5].

Nest consist of sequnetial rows of brood cells in corridors that can be up to 20 cm deep. Brood cells for males are smaller in legnth and diameter than those for females [4,13]. The nest medium can therefore be decisive for the ratio male to female [13] that will eventually emerge.

A thin mud wall of about 0,2mm in width is constructed between the brood cells [4,5,13] the walls towards the entrance of the nest are built thicker [5,13].

The nest often contains a vestibular cell [4,13], that may be short [4] or missing completely [4,13] and which may contain few prey specimen [13].

Nest cells are fill with 1-24 prey specimen [16,20], the final amount being determined by the combined weight of the prey specimen [20].

Nests may be shared with Passaloecus insignis [17], or Psenulus concolor [17].

Egg

Trypoxylon eggs are saussage shaped [13]. The egg is usually deposited on the underside of a prey specimen [5]. The egg is deposited on one of the prey specimen, and there seems to be no clear pattern [4,5,13].

Larva

After three to five days the larva emerges [4,5] which will finish growing in five to seven days and than starts spinning a cocoon in one or two days [5]. The cocoon is attached to the back wall and in case of large diameter cells [5] is suspended freely in the space by threads from the walls [4,5].

2.3. BEE HOTEL

The species likes to use artificial nesting help [4,5,17,18].

They use boreholes 2,5 – 6 mm in diameter [4,5,13].

Garden species

The species is a yearly returning guast on the bee hotels in our garden. She prefers nests in a heigth of 80-140cm. Heigher nests are used as well but significantly less frequently.

2.4. HUNTING

A female can catch between 100-300 prey specimen per season [16].

Caught prey are stung [12] which will usually result in permanent paralysis [6].

3. PLANT RELATIONS

3.1. WOOD TYPES

The following wood types are mentioned in literature as medium for the wasp to built her nests in:

Adoxaceae
(Moschatel family)

Sambucus (Elder) [5]
Asteraceae
(Composite family)

Cirsium (Plume thistles) [13]
Onagraceae
(Willowherb
family)

Chamaenerion [13]
Poaceae
(Grasses)

Phragmites
Phragmites australis (Common reed) [20]
Rosaceae
(Rose family)

Rubus (Blackberry) [5,17]

3.2. FOOD PLANTS

The following plant species are mentioned in literature as food sources:

Apiaceae [4]
(Umbellifers)


Asteraceae [4]
(Composite family)


Garden species

The garden provides some of these food plants but I have not observed the species on it yet.

Apiaceae
(Umbellifers)

Foeniculum
Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel)

Pastinaca
Pastinaca sativa (Parsnip)
Asteraceae
(Composite family)

Solidago (Goldenrod)

4. PREY RELATIONS

The species uses adult [13,20] and immature [13,14] spiders (Araneae) for her brood [3,14], and the prey spectrum consist primarily of web building spiders [20].
Phylloneta impressa seems to be the preferred prey species [20], but T. figulus does not seem to narrow its choice in prey and has a wide prey spectrum [20].

The following species and group occurring in the Netherlands [1] are mentioned in literature:


Araneidae [5as argiopidae]
(Orb-weaver spiders)

Araneus [5,12 as Epeira,17]
Araneus angulatus (Angular orbweaver) [20immature]
Araneus diadematus (Garden spider) [14,20immature]
Araneus marmoreus (Marbled orbweaver) [14]
Araneus quadratus (Four-spotted orbweaver) [14]
Araneus sturmi [20adult]

Araniella [14]
Araniella cucurbitina (Cucumber green orb spider) [20adult]
Araniella opisthographa [20adult]

Argiope
Argiope bruennichi (Wasp spider) [20adult & immature]

Cercidia
Cercidia prominens [13]

Hypsosinga
Hypsosinga albovittata [13as Singa albovittata]
Hypsosinga pygmaea [13al Singa pygmaea]

Mangora
– Mangora acalypha (Cricket bat spider) [14,20adult & immature]

Nuctenea
– Nuctenea umbratica (Walnut orbweaver) [20immature]

Neoscona
Neoscona adianta [14]

Singa
Singa hamata [14]
Singa nitidula [14]

Zilla [5,14,17]
Dictynidae
Dictyna [4,17]
Dictyna arundinacea [14]
Lycosidae [5]
Trochosa [13]
Trochosa ruricola (Rustic wolf spider) [13]
Linyphiidae [5,7,12]
(Money spiders)

Agyneta
Agyneta rurestris [14,20adult as Meioneta rurestris]

Bathyphantes [14]

Floronia
Floronia bucculenta [20adult & immature]

Kaestneria
Kaestneria dorsalis [14]

Linyphia
Linyphia hortensis [20adult]
Linyphia triangularis (Common hammock weaver) [14,20adult & immature]

Microlinyphia
Microlinyphia pusilla [20adult & immature]

Microneta [5,17]

Neriene
Neriene montana [14]
Neriene radiata [14,20volw.]

Tenuiphantes
Tenuiphantes tenuis [20volw.]

Salticidae [7]
(Jumping spiders)


Heliophanus
Heliophanus flavipes [20adult & immature]

Salticus [5,12,17]
Salticus scenicus [14]

Synageles [5,17]
Synageles venator [14]

Tetragnathidae

Tetragnatha [12,14]
Tetragnatha extensa [20adult & immature]

Metellina [20adult & immature]
Metellina segmentata [14]
Theridiidae
(Cobweb spiders)

Anelosimus
Anelosimus vittatus [20adult]

Cryptachaea
Cryptachaea riparia [20adult & immature]

Enoplognatha [20adult & immature]
Enoplognatha ovata [14,20adult & immature]

Neottiura
Neottiura bimaculata [14,20adult ]

Parasteatoda
Parasteatoda lunata [20adult]
Parasteatoda simulans [14]
Parasteatoda tepidariorum [14]

Phylloneta
Phylloneta impressa [20vadul & immature, as Phylloneta impressum]
Phylloneta sisyphia [20adult]

Platnickina
Platnickina tincta [14,20adult]

Simitidion
Simitidion simile [14]

Theridion [20adult & immature]
Theridion pictum [14]
Theridion pinastri [20adult & immature]
Theridion varians [14,20adult]
Thomisidae [7]
(Crab spiders)

Xysticus [5,14,17]
Philodromidae
Philodromus
Philodromus aureolus [20adult & immature]
Philodromus cespitum [20immature]

Prey species outside the Netherlands:

Theridiidae
(Cobweb spiders)
Theridion
Theridion sisyphium [14]

5. PARASITIC RELATIONS

The following species and groups occurring in the Netherlands [1] are mentioned in literature:

Chalcidoidae
(Chalcid wasps)

Eulophidae
Melittobia
Melittobia acasta [14,20]

Eurytomidae
Eurytoma [13]
Eurytoma nodularis [14]
Eurytoma verticillata [14]

Pteromalidae
Dibrachys [20]

Torymidae
Monodontomerus
Monodontomerus vicicellae [14]

Torymus
Torymus armatus [13 as Diomorus armatus]

Chrysididae
(Cuckoo wasps)

Chrysis
Chrysis fasciata [14]
Chrysis fulgida [14]
Chrysis ignita [7,14,20]
Chrysis obtusidens [14]
Chrysis rutilans [19]
Chrysis viridula [14]

Elampus
Elampus panzeri [14]

Pseudomalus
Pseudomalus auratus [3,13 as Omalus auratus,14,17 as Omalus auratus]
Pseudomalus pusillus [3,14,17 as Omalus auratus]

Trichrysis

Trichrysis cyanea
[3,7,8,13,14,20]
Evanioidae [3]
Gasteruption
Gasteruption assectator [3,14,15,17,20,21]
Gasteruption jaculator [14,15,21]
Gasteruption opacum [14,21]
Ichneumonidae
(Ichneumon wasps)

Ephialtes
Ephialtes manifestator [20]

Hoplocryptus
Hoplocryptus confector [18]

Mastrus [13]

Perithous
Perithous divinator [15,17]
Perithous mediator [3,17]
Perithous scurra [15]

Poemenia
Poemenia notata [14]

Polysphincta [14]

Stenodontus
Stenodontus marginellus [14]

Townesia
Townesia tenuiventris [5,14]
Coleoptera
(Beetles)

Cleridae
Trichodes
Trichodes alvearius [20]

Dermestidae
Megatoma
Megatoma undata [14]

Trogoderma
– Trogoderma glabrum [20]

Diptera
(Flies)

Anthomyiidae
Eustalomyia
Eustalomyia hilaris [14]

Bombyliidae
Anthrax [20]

Sarcophagidae
Amobia
Amobia signata [14]

Metopia
Metopia argyrocephala [14]

Tachinidae [13]

Parasitic species outside the Netherlands:

Chrysididae
Chrysis
Chrysis spledidula [14,19]
Ichneumonidae
(Ichneumon wasps)

Aritranius [17]

Hoplocryptus
Hoplocryptus heliophilus [14 as Aritranis heliophilus,18]
Hoplocryptus bohemani [18]

Isadelphus
– Isadelphus armatus [14]

Nematopodius formosus
Nematopodius formosus [14]

Thrybius
Thrybius brevispina [20]
Diptera
(Flies)

Sarcophagidae
Amobia
Amobia oculata [22]

Miltogramma
Miltogramma punctatum [14]

6. IDENTIFICATION

Length males: 7,5 – 10 mm
Length females: 9 – 12 mm

Genus

The genus Trypoxylon can be identified using the following characters:

1.  Forewing: with one submarginal cell [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, Trypoxylon: forewing with one submarginal cell

2. Eye: inner edge with deep U-shaped emargination [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, Trypoxylon: inner edge eye with deep U-shaped emargination

3. Abdomen: black [10,11]. Wasp entirely black [9]

4. Abdomen: relatively very long [9,-11]
The abdomen protrudes relatively far from beneath the wings.

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, Trypoxylon: abdomen entirely black, protrudes relatively far beyond wing tips


specimen caught for photo identification on 30-v-2022, length 12mm

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), imago
Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), imago
Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), imago
Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), propodeum
Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), imago

1. Antenna with 12 segments [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), antenna with twelve segments

2. Abdomen with 6 segments [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), abdomen with six segments

HEAD

1. Distance between eyes at frons about as wide as the distance between the eyes at the clypeus [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), Distance between eyes at frons about as wide as the distance between the eyes at the clypeus

2. Forehead (frons): without a shield-like area limited by carinae [10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), frons without shield-like area limited by carinae

3. Forehead: medial keel above antennal inplant weakly elevated, en profil without clear bend towards forehead line [10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), medial keel above antennal inplant weakly elevated, en profil without clear bend towards forehead line

4. Clypeus: apical edge between medial frontallobe and eye irregularly emarginated [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), apical edge between medial frontal lobe and eye irregularly emarginated

5. Occipital carina: lower part not enlarged [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), lower part occipital carina not enlarged

6. Head: upperside occiput with sparce prostrate hairs [10]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), upperside occiput with sparce prostrate hairs

THORAX

1. Upperside thorax (mesonotum): mat [10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), mesonotum mat

2. Pronotum: rear edge black [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), rear edge pronotum black

3. Foreleg: shin (tibia) and tarsus black [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), foreleg shin (tibia) and tarsus black

4. Underside thorax (mesosternum): mid front, in front of forecoxae without thorn-like protrusion [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), mesosternum mid front, in front of forecoxae without protrusion

ABDOMEN

1. Length tergite 1 clearly shorter than combined length of tergites 2 and 3 [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), Length tergite 1 clearly shorter than combined length of tergites 2 and 3



specimen caught for photo identification on 03-vii-2021, length ±9mm

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎
Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎
Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎
Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎

  1. Antenna with 13 segments [9,10,11]
Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, antenna with thirteen segments

2. Abdomen with 7 segments [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, abdomen with seven segments

HEAD

1. Antenna: length last antennal segment (13) is 2,2 to 3,6x longer than wide at base [9,10,11] (here 3,4x)
2. Antenna: length last antennal segment (13) about as long as combined length segments 10, 11 and 12 [11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, last antennal segment 2,2-3,6x longer than wide at base (here ±3,4x)

3. Antenna: second last antennal segment 0,5-0,8x longer than wide at base [9,11] (here ±0,7x)

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, second last antennal segment 0,5-0,8x longer than wide at base (here ±0,7x)

4. Forehead (frons): frons without a shield-like area limited by carinae [10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, frons without a shield-like area limited by carinae

5. Distance between eyes at frons (l1) about as wide as the distance between the eyes at the clypeus (l2) [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, distance between eyes on vertex (l1) almost equal to distance between eyes at clypeus (l2)

6. Forehead: medial keel forehead weakly elevated above antennae implants, en profil no clear indentation [10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, medial keel forehead weakly elevated above antennae implants, en profil no clear indentation

7. Occipital carina: lower part not enlarged [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, occipital carina lower part not enlarged

THORAX

1. Upperside thorax (mesonotum): mat [10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, mesonotum mat

2. Pronotum: rear edge black [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, pronotum rear edge black

3. Foreleg: shin (tibia) and tarsus black [9,10,11]

Black Wood Borer Wasp ♀︎ (Trypoxylon figulus), foreleg tibia and tarsus black

4. Mesosternum: mid front edge, in front of forecoxae without thorn-like protrusion [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, front edge mesosternum, in front of forecoxae without thorn-like protrusion

5. Side thorax (mesopleuron): hairs on center mesopleuron longer than diameter frontal ocelle [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, hairs on center mesopleuron longer than diameter frontal ocelle

ABDOMEN

1. Length tergite 1 clearly shorter than combined length tergites 2 and 3 [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon figulus ♂︎, length tergite 1 shorter than combined length tergites 2 and 3


References

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