Pemphredon inornata♀︎

Last update: 17 April 2023


Common

SPECIES: Pemphredon inornata
GENUS PEMPHREDON
FAMILY PEMPHREDONIDAE



OBSERVATION:
2022-V-22

YEARS:
2022

MONTHS:
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec


Official name:

Synonyms:

Pamphredon inornata [Nederlands soortenregister]

Cemonus shuckardi (Morawitz)

Dineurus shuckardi (Westwood 1837)

Pemphredon inornatus (Say 1824)

Pemphredon shuckardi (Morawitz 1864)

Pemphredon tenax (Fox 1892)

see more on: www.gbif.org

Etymology:

inornata

Latin: undecorated

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, imago

CONTENTS

1. Distribution
2. Behaviour
3. Plant relations
4. Prey relations
5. Parasitic relations
6. Identification

1. DISTRIBUTION

Pemphredon inornata is a common wasp [waarneming.nl] that occurs throughout the Netherlands [Peeters et al., 2004].

Garden species

The species has been first observed in our garden in 2022.

2. BEHAVIOUR

2.1. ACTIVITY

The species is active from the beginning of May until half October [Peeters et al., 2004]. Normally there is one generation per year, but in advantageous years sometimes two [Blösch,2000].

2.2. DEVELOPMENT

Nest

The species uses marrow filled plant stems, abandoned corridors of xylophagous insects in dead wood, and galls of frit flies (Chloropidae) [Peeters et al., 2004],[Ruchin et al., 2019], Lipara [Klein, 1996],[Ruchin et al., 2019]. Decayed wood, trunks and poles can also be used [Bohart, 1976].

Corridors with a diameter of 2,5-3 mm are gnawed in wood [Tsuneki, 1952 (als P. shuckardi)].

The nest may consist of branched corridors with some brood cells or a single brood cell, seldom are these constructed in a row in predominantly in tube-like structures [Tsuneki, 1952 (als P. shuckardi)]. In the first case the prey is somewhat mixed with wood flour and no separating walls are constructed [Blösch, 2000]. Brood cells arranged in a row are separated by such wall constructed from wood pulp [Tsuneki, 1952]. Nest constructed in Lipara galls do not contain separating walls and are closed by a plug made of plant fibers [Blösch, 2000].
When the brood cell is filled the corridor leading to it is filled with wood flour. Pemphredon wasps often construct one or more spare corridor that is used to store the flour during construction [Tsuneki, 1952].

Every brood cell contains up to 30-50 prey [Peeters et al., 2004],[Tsuneki, 1952 (als P. shuckardi)].

Eggs develop in about three to five days [Cranshaw, 2014]. The larva develops in about two weeks to pre-pupa [Cranshaw, 2014]. The second generation will overwinter as pre-pupa, the first generation will developed in short period to pupa [Cranshaw,2014]. The pupal phase will will take about three weeks [Cranshaw, 2014].

Pemphredon has clear potandry, the appearing male first and usually occupy the frontal cells, the females develop in the cell located in the back [Blösch, 2000].

2.3. BEE HOTEL

Some Pemphredon females are known to be observed collecting nesting materials on bee hotels [Breugel, 2014]. Whether this is true for P. inornata is not mentioned in the literature to me.

2.4. MATING

2.5. HUNTING

Caught prey is paralysed by stinging or killed by crushing it with the jaws [Ruchin et al., 2019], [Piek, 2013], [Lomholdt, 1984]. P. inornata has been observed stinging its prey in the ventral side while hovering in flight [Tsuneki, 1952 (als P. shuckardi)]. Sometimes a caught prey is eaten by the wasp, which will not be stung [Tsuneki, 1952 (als P. shuckardi)].

The prey is transported to the nest using the mandibles [Blösch,2000],[Tsuneki, 1952 (als P. shuckardi)].

3. PLANT RELATIONS

3.1. WOOD TYPES

The following wood types are mentioned in literature as medium for the wasp to built her nests in:

Adoxaceae
(Moschatel family)
Sambucus (Elder) [Peeters et al., 2004],[Danks, 1974 (as Cemonus shuckardi)]]
Anacardiaceae
(Sumac family)
Rhus (Sumac) [Cranshaw, 2014 (Pemphredon spp.)]
Betulaceae
(Birch family)
Betula (Birch) [Peeters et al., 2004]
Oleaceae 
(Olive family)
Forsythia [Peeters et al., 2004]
Poaceae
(Grasses)
Phragmites (Reed) [Peeters et al., 2004]
Rosaceae
(Rose family)
Rosa (Rose) [Peeters et al., 2004]

Rubus (Blackberry) [Peeters et al., 2004],[Danks, 1971 (as Cemonus shuckardi)]

Sorbus (Rowan) [Peeters et al., 2004]
Salicaceae
(Willow family)
Populus (Poplar) [Peeters et al., 2004]

Salix (Willow) [Peeters et al., 2004]
Table 3.1-1: Wood types used as nesting substrate

Galls of Lipara flies are used as well for nesting, Lipara lucens [Blösch, 2000].

3.2. FOOD PLANTS

The following wood types are mentioned in literature as food sources:

Adoxaceae
(Moschatel family)
Sambucus (Elder) [Tsuneki, 1952]
Apiaceae
(Umbelliferae)
Angelica (Wild angelica) [Blösch, 2000],[Woydak, 1996]

Daucus [Blösch, 2000],[Woydak, 1996]

Pastinaca (Parsnip) [Blösch, 2000],[Woydak, 1996]
Asteraceae
(Composite family)
Achillea (Yarrow) [Blösch, 2000]

Cirsium (Thistle)
Cirsium arvense (Creeping thistle) [Blösch, 2000],[Woydak, 1996]
Rosaceae
(Rose family)
Crataegus (Hawthorn) [Blösch, 2000],[Woydak, 1996]
Table 3.2-1: Used food plants

Pemphredon wasps have been observed licking honeydew [Blösch, 2000] on leaves of Sambucus [Tsuneki, 1952].

Garden species

In the garden some umbellifers are present but I have not observed the species on it.

Apicaceae
(Umbelliferae)
Foeniculum
Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel)

Pastinaca
– Pastinaca sativa (Parsnip)
Asteraceae
(Composite family)
Anthemis
–  Anthemis tinctoria (Dyer’s chamomile)

Cichorium
Cichorium intibus (Chicory)

Solidago
Solidago gigantea (Giant goldenrod)

Tanacetum
Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy)

Taraxacum
Taraxacum officinale (Common dandelion)
Table 3.2-2: Foodplants in our garden

3.3. PROOI PLANTEN

Pemphredon finds her prey on their food plants. The following plants are mentioned in literature:

Adoxaceae
(Moschatel family)
Sambucus (Elder)
Sambucus buergeriana [Tsuneki,1952]
Table 3.3-1: Prey plants

Garden species

The garden does not contain any of the mentioned prey plants.

4. PREY RELATIONS

The species uses aphids (Aphidoidea) for her brood [Peeters et al., 2004],[Blösch, 2000],[Woydak, 1996].
Sometimes a caught prey is eaten by the wasp without transporting it to the nest [Tsuneki, 1952 (als P. shuckardi)].
The following species and group occurring in the Netherlands [Nederlands soortenregister] are mentioned in literature:

Aphididae
(Aphids)
Amphorophora [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996]

Anuraphis [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996]

Aphis [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996],[Danks, 1971 (as Cemonus shuckardi)]
Aphis salicariae [Danks, 1971 (as Cemonus shuckardi)]]

Chaitophorus [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996]

Macrosiphoniella
Macrosiphoniella usquertensis [Danks, 1971 (as Cemonus shuckardi)]

Megoura viciae
Megoura viciae [Danks, 1971 (as Cemonus shuckardi)]

Myzus [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996]

Phorodon [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996]

Pterocomma [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996]

Thelaxes [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996]

Therioaphis subgen. Pterocallidium [Lomholdt, 1984 (as Pterocallidium)]
Tabel 4-1: Prooisoorten in Nederland

Prey species outside the Netherlands:

Aphididae
(Aphids)
Callipterus [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996]

Eterocallidium [Woydak, 1996]

Macroshiphum [Lomholdt, 1984],[Woydak, 1996]

Callaphidinae [Blösch, 2000 (as Callaphididae]

Chaitophorinae [Blösch, 2000 (as Chaitophoridae)]

Thelaxinae [Blösch, 2000 (as Thelaxidae]
Tabel 4-2: Prooisoorten buiten Nederland

Garden species

None of the mentioned prey species have been observed yet in our garden.

5. PARASITIC RELATIONS

The following species and group occurring in the Netherlands [Nederlands soortenregister] are mentioned in literature:

Hymenoptera
(Wasps)
Chrysididae (Cuckoo wasps)

Pseudomalus *
Pseudomalus auratus [Peeters et al., 2004],[Ruchin et al., 2019],[Woydak, 1996],[Paukkunen, 2015],[Blösch, 2000 (as Omalus auratus]
➡︎ brood idiobiont ectoparasitoid (eats food stock and larva) [Tsuneki, 1952]


Ichneumonidae (Ichneumon wasps)

Perithous
Perithous divinator [Blösch, 2000],[Peeters et al., 2004]
Tabel 5-1: Parasitic species relations in the Netherlands
*cuckoo wasp female does not enter the nest, but parasitizes a living aphid that then is caught by P. inornata [Paukkunen, 2015]

6. IDENTIFICATION

Length males: 6 – 7,5 mm
Length females: 5 – 8 mm

Genus

The genus Pemphredon can be identified using the following characters:

1.  Forewing: with two submarginal cells [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, Pemphredon: forewing with two submarginal cells

2. Forewing: with two discoidal cells [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, Pemphredon: forewing with two submarginal cells

3. Forewing: pterostigma smaller than marginal cell [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, Pemphredon: pterostigma smaller than marginal cell

4. Thorax: pronotum not enlarged, sides do not reach tegula [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, pronotum wide and glossy

5. Thorax: notauli do not reach back edge mesonotum [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, Pemphredon: notauli do not reach rear edge mesonotum

6. Abdomen: front first abdominal segment petiolate [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, Pemphredon: abdominal segment 1 frontally petiolate


specimen caught for photo identification on 22-v-2022, length ±7,5 mm

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, imago
Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, imago
Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, imago
Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, imago

1. Antenna with 12 segments [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata, antenna with twelve segments

2. Abdomen with 6 segments [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata, abdomen with six segments

3. Clypeus with few silver hairs [Bitsch, 2022],[Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata, clypeus with few silver hairs

4. Tergite 6 with pygidium [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata, tergite 6 with pygidium

HEAD

1. Clypeus: apical edge flat with three teeth [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007], in the middle obtuse-angled protruding [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]. Seen from below the tooth resembles a tubercle in a semi-circle [Bitsch, 2022].

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, clypeus apical edge with three teeth, in middle obtusely protruding. Viewed from below tooth resembles a tubercle in semi-circle

Jacobs/Bitsch (red line) use a different clypeus depiction than Smissen (blue dotted line, frontal view looking down).

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, Clypeus: viewed frontally in middle sharpy protruding

Clypeus characteristically domed and simultaneously sharply protruding [Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, Clypeus: characteristically domed and simultaneously sharply protruding

2. Without horn between the antennal implants [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, without thorn between the antennae

3. Antennal segment 3 about 2x longer than wide [Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, antennal segment 3 ±2x longer than wide

THORAX

1. Forewing: first [Smissen, 2003] and second discoidal transverse veins join submarginal cell [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003], second vein predominantly antefurcal (here antefurcal) [Smissen, 2003].

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, first and second discoidal transverse veins join submarginal cell 1, second vein predominantly antefurcal (here antefurcal)

2. Forewing: second submarginal cell higher than wide [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, submarginal cell 2 higher (h) than wide (w)

3. Foreleg: outer side member 1 (metatarsus) with very long hairs [Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, metatarsus 1 with very long hairs on outside

4. Hindleg: outer side shin (tibia) with distinct thorns on bumps [Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, outerside hind tibia with distinct thorns on bumps

5. Hindleg: inner side thigh (femur) chagrined.

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, inner side hind thigh chagrinated

6. Pronotum: wide and glossy [Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, pronotum wide and glossy

7. Occiput, mesonotum, scutellum and metanotum finely, coarsely punctured, glossy to polished [Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, occiput, mesonotum, scutellum and metanotum fine coarse punctation, glossy to polished

8. Mesoscutum usually with oil-like shine [Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, mesoscutum usually with oil-like shine

9. Scutum glossy, the spaces between the punctures is 3-4x the puncture diameter [Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, scutum glossy with space between punctation of 3-4x puncture diameter

10. Ventrally (mesosternum) and side (mesopleuron) thorax in front middle hip (coxa) almost structureless, smooth and glossy [Bitsch, 2022],[Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, mesosternum and lower part mesopleuron in front of middle coxa almost structureless, smooth and glossy

11. Propodeum: boundary predominantly wide, glossy and polished [Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, boundary predominantly wide, glossy and polished

12. Boundary without stair-like structure [Smissen, 2003]
A stair-like structure has two clear vertical rails (green dotted line) with horizontal rungs (red lines) in between, the entire structure lies deeper in the boundary causing this to be interrupted.
Here the vertical rails are missing, and the horizontal rungs lie on top of the boundary.

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, boundary without stair-like structure

ABDOMEN

1. Petiolus: longer than half the length of tergite 1 [Jacobs, 2007], longer then half the length of the postpetiolus [Bitsch, 2022]

Pemphredon inornata ♀︎, petiolus (P) longer than postpetiolus (PP)

2. Tergites and sternites almost without punctations [Smissen, 2003]

Pemphredon inornata, tergites and sternites almost without punctation

3. Pygidium: short and wide [Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

The edges of the pygidium often diverge slightly upwards, the ratio upper space : apical space is ±1,4 in this specimen.

Pemphredon inornata, pygidium short and wide



1. Antenna with 13 segments [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

2. Clypeus: with silver hairs [Bitsch, 2022],[Smissen, 2003]

3. Tergite 7 without pygidium [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

HEAD

1. Clypeus: apical edge with triangular cut out [Bitsch, 2022]

2. Without a thorn between the antennal implants [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

3. Antennal segments 5-8 with small, stump, matt reddish swellings [Bitsch,2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

4. Antennal member 3: 1,6-2,1x longer than wide [Bitsch, 2022]

THORAX

1. Forewing: first [Smissen, 2003] and second discoidal transverse veins join submarginal cell [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003], second vein predominantly antefurcal (here antefurcal) [Smissen, 2003].

2. Forewing: second submarginal cell higher than wide [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

3. Foreleg: outer side tarsal member 1 (metatarsus) with a few longer hairs [Smissen, 2003]

4. Middle tarsal member 1 almost straight [jacobs, 2007]

5. Hind leg: outer side shins (tibia) with some hairs and clear thorns [Smissen, 2003]

6. Pronotum: wide and glossy [Smissen, 2003]

7. Mesonotum frontally glossy, ± back half punctured or wrinkly punctured [Smissen, 2003]

7. Scutellum: finely punctured, with large spaces between the punctures, glossy [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003], space between punctures 1-4x thee puncture diameter [Bitsch, 2022].

8. Metanotum: with sharp edges, very finely structured, semi-gloss or glossy [jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

9. Ventrally (mesosternum) and side (mesopleuron) thorax in front middle hip (coxa) almost structureless, smooth and glossy [Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]

10. Propodeum: boundary predominantly wide, glossy and polished [Smissen, 2003]

11. Boundary without stair-like structure [Smissen, 2003]
A stair-like structure has two clear vertical rails with horizontal rungs in between, the entire structure lies deeper in the boundary causing this to be interupted.

ABDOMEN

1. Petiolus: longer than half the length of tergite 1 [Jacobs, 2007], longer then half the length of the postpetiolus [Bitsch, 2022]

2. Tergiet VI glossy and finely and coarsely punctated [Smissen, 2003]

3. Sternites IV-VI, seen in profile, with short more or less dense backwards pointing bristle hairs [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs,2007]

4. Sternites III-VI mat, almost without punctures, apical seams narrow and not or slightly depressed [Bitsch, 2022],[Jacobs, 2007],[Smissen, 2003]



Literature

Bitsch, 2022 Bitsch, J. (2022). Hyménoptères sphéciformes d'Europe: Systématique (3e partie) : Pemphredoninae et Philanthinae. France: Fédération française des sociétés de sciences naturelles.

Blösch, 2000 Blösch, M. (2000). Die Grabwespen Deutschlands – Lebens‐weise, Verhalten, Verbreitung. 71. Teil. In Dahl, F.: Die Tierwelt Deutschlands. Begr.: 1925. – Keltern (Goecke & Evers). – 480 S. 341 Farbfotos. ISBN 3‐931374‐26‐2 (hardcover). DM 98,–. Zool. Reihe, 78: 353-353. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20020780208

Bohart, 1976 Bohart, R.M. & A.S. Menke, 1976. Sphecid wasps of the world: a generic revision. - University of California Press, 695 p.

Breugel, 2014 Breugel, P. van 2014. Gasten van bijenhotels. – EIS Kenniscentrum Insecten en andere ongewervelden & Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden.

Cranshaw, 2014 CRANSHAW, Whitney. Colorado Insects of Interest Fact Sheets authored by Whitney Cranshaw - Pemphredon Wasps. Colorado State University, 2014.

Danks, 1971 DANKS, Hugh V. Biology of some stem‐nesting aculeate Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 1971, 122.11: 323-395.

Jacobs, 2007 JACOBS, H. J (2007): Die Grabwespen Deutschlands Ampulicidae. Sphecidae, Crabronidae–Bestimmungsschlüssel in Blank, SM & Taeger, A (Hrsg): Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meeresteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise, Hymenoptera III–Keltern, Goecke & Evers, 79: 1-207.

Lomholdt, 1984 LOMHOLDT, O. 1975-1976; 1984 (2. Auflage). The Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 4.1: 2.

Klein, 1996 KLEIN, Wim. De graafwespen van de Benelux. Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, Utrecht, 1996, 1-130. + KLEIN, Wim. De graafwespen van de Benelux: supplement. Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, 1999.

Nederlands soortenregister Nederlands Soortenregister

Paukkunen, 2015 PAUKKUNEN, Juho, et al. An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries, with description of a new species. ZooKeys, 2015, 548: 1.

Peeters et al., 2004 Peeters, T.M.J., C. van Achterberg, W.R.B. Heitmans, W.F. Klein, V. Lefeber, A.J. van Loon, A.A. Mabelis, H. Nieuwen-huijsen, M. Reemer, J. de Rond, J. Smit, H.H.W. Velthuis, 2004. De wespen en mieren van Nederland (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). – Nederlandse Fauna 6. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, Leiden, knnv Uitgeverij, Utrecht & European Invertebrate Survey – Nederland, Leiden.

Piek, 2013 Piek, T. (Ed.). (2013). Venoms of the Hymenoptera: biochemical, pharmacological and behavioural aspects. Elsevier.

Ruchin et al., 2019 Ruchin, Alexander & Antropov, Alexander. (2019). Wasp fauna (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae, Chrysididae, Dryinidae, Tiphiidae, Mutillidae, Scoliidae, Pompilidae, Vespidae, Sphecidae, Crabronidae & Trigonalyidae) of Mordovia State Nature Reserve and its surroundings in Russia. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11. 13195-13250. 10.11609/jott.4216.11.2.13195-13250.

Smissen, 2003 SMISSEN, Jvd. Zur Kenntnis der Untergattung Cemonus Jurine 1807 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae, Pemphredon) mit Schlüssel zur Determination und Hinweis auf ein gemeinsames Merkmal untersuchter Schilfbewohner (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae, Pompilidae). Not Faun Gembloux, 2003, 52: 53-101.

Tsuneki, 1952 TSUNEKI, Katsuji. Ethological studies on the Japanese species of Pemphredon (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae), with notes on their parasites, Ellampus spp.(Hym., Chrysididae)(With 5 Text-figures). 北海道大學理學部紀要, 1952, 11.1: 57-75.

Waarneming.nl Waarneming.nl

Woydak, 1996 WOYDAK, Horst. Hymenoptera Aculeata Westfalica Familia: Sphecidae (Grabwespen), 1996, 3-135.

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