Spilomena beata ♀︎

Last update: 29 January 2023
SPECIES: Spilomena beata
GENUS: SPILOMENA
FAMILY: PEMPHREDONIDAE



OBSERVATION:
2022-VIII-21

YEARS:
2022

MONTHS:
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec


Official name

Synonyms

Spilomena beata [1]

Spilomena expectata
Spilomena exspectata

see more on: www.gbif.org

Etymology

beata

Spilomena beata ♀︎, imago

CONTENTS

1. Distribution
2. Behaviour
3. Plant relations
4. Prey relations
5. Parasitic relations
6. Identification

1. DISTRIBUTION

Spilomena beata is a rare wasp in the Netherlands [2].

2. BEHAVIOUR

2.1. ACTIVITY

The species is active from May to half September [3].

2.2. DEVELOPMENT

Nest

The females built their nests in abandoned corridors in dead wood gnawed by beetles Anobium sp. (Anobiidae) [3,7], but gnaw their own nests in the pith of plant stems too [3,4,5,7,8,12].

The nesting corridors have a diameter of 1,0-1,4mm and a length of 3,5-6 mm [8].

The nest corridors can be constructed linear with the brood cells in a row, or branched with the brood cells located at the end of the corridor [12]. The cells are separated with by walls constructed of wood pulp [5] or a 0,2-7mm wedge-shaped pith plug [8]. Cells are provisioned with about 20 prey specimen [3,5].

Male and female cells are equal in size [8].

The nest is sealed with a plug of wood shreds that are tamped tight with the abdomen and glued with saliva [5,6,7].

Females find their nest using smell and as a result normally take a lot of time to find it after returning from the hunt, which is typical in the genus Spilomena [5,12]. They will scout around a large surface around the assumed nest position until they smelled it out using the antennae [5]

Nest locations may be hared with S. troglodytes [7].

2.3. BEE HOTEL

Females may use artificial nesting material and accept borehole of 1,5-2mm [3,7].

2.4. MATING

Spilomena beata develops two generation per year [3,5,6].

2.5. HUNT

Prey specimen are carried to the nest using their mandibles [4,7,12].

3. PLANT RELATIONS

3.1. WOOD

The following wood types are mentioned in literature as medium for the wasp to built her nests in:

Adoxaceae
Sambucus (Elder) [12]
Fagaceae
Fagus
Fagus sylvatica (Beech) [7]
Rosaceae
Rubus (Blackberry) [5,6]
Scrophulariaceae
Buddleja [8]
Table 3.1-1: wood types used as nest substrate

Twigs [4,6] and timber [6] may be used as well.

3.2. FOOD PLANTS

Males feed with honeydew liked from leaves.
The following plant species are mentioned in literature as food sources:

Apicaceae
Falcaria [5,6]

Pastinaca [5,6]

Peucedanum
Peucedanum cervaria [13]
Table 3.2-1: Food plants in the Netherlands

Garden species

Our garden provides a number of these food plant. I have observer a Spilomena species foraging on Fennel (Foeniculum) but did not establish which one.

4. PREY RELATIONS

The species uses primarily the larvae of thrips (Thysanoptera) for her brood [3,4,5,6,9,12].
The following species and group occurring in the Netherlands [1] are mentioned in literature:

Thysanoptera
(Thrips) [4]

Taeniothrips [5,7]

Thrips [5,7]
Table 4-1: Prey species in the Netherlands

Garden species

None of the mentioned prey species have yet been observed in our garden.

5. PARASITIC RELATIONS

The following species and groups occurring in the Netherlands [1] are mentioned in literature:



Table 5-1: Parasitic species in the Netherlands

Parasitic species outside the Netherlands:

Hymenoptera
(Wespen)

Chalcidoidea (Bronswespen)

Pteromalidae
Lonchetron
Lonchetron fennicum [4]

Table 5-2: Parasitic species outside the Netherlands

6. IDENTIFICATION

Length males: 2,5 – 3 mm
Length females: 2,5 – 3,5 mm

Genus

The genus Spilomena can be identified using the following characters:

1.  Forewing: with two submarginal cells [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, forewing with two submarginal cells

2. Forewing: submarginal cell 2 not petiolate [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, Spilomena: forewing second submarginal cel not petiolate

3. Forewing: pterostigma large and almost semicircular [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, Spilomena: forewing with large, almost semi-circular pterostigma

4. Forewing: radial cell(lr) longer than pterostigma (ls) [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, Spilomena: front wing; length stigma shorter than length radial cell

5. Forewing: radial cell tip sharp [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, Spilomena: forewing radial cell pointed

6. Forewing: with one discoidal cell [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, Spilomena: forewing with one discoidal cell

7. Abdomen: first abdominal segment not petiolate [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, Spilomena: first abdominal segment not petiolate

8. Abdomen: entirely black [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, Spilomena: abdomen entirely black



Spilomena beata ♀︎, imago
Spilomena beata ♀︎, imago
Spilomena beata ♀︎, imago

1. Antenna with 12 segments [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, antenna with twelve segments

2. Abdomen with 6 segments [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, abdomen with six segments

HEAD

1. Clypeus: evenly rounded [10,11] , without longitudinal groove [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, clypeus evenly rounded

2. Mandible: usually black-brwon [10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, mandibles usually black-brown

3. Ratio distance between hind ocelli (POL) : distance hind ocellus to eye edge (OOL) = 1,4 – 2,0 (here ±1,4) [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, ool = 1,4-2,0x pol

4. Occiput: developed less strongly [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, occiput developed less strongly

THORAX

1. Scutellum: frontal furrow narrow and without transverse carinae [9,10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, basal scutellum furrow narrow and without transverse carinae

2. Mesonotum: apical edge without longitudinal grooves [10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, apical edge mesonotum without longitudinal grooves

3. Mesopleuron: with clear fine longitudinal wrinkles [9]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, mesopleuron with fine clear longitudinal wrinkles

3. Wings: veins brown [10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, wing veins brown

4. Dorsal field propodeum limited by carina, without fine net-shaped wrinkles between the main sculpture [10,11]

Spilomena beata ♀︎, dorsal field propodeum limited by carina, without fine net-shaped wrinkles between the main sculpture

ABDOMEN

  1. Tergite 6 with double bristle row [9,10,11]
Spilomena beata ♀︎, tergite 6 with double bristle row




1. Antenna with 13 segments [9,10,11]

2. Abdomen with 7 segments [9,10,11]

3. Face and clypeus yellow, at least the front edge yellow [9,10,11]

HEAD

1. Clypeus: apical edge with or without slight curve [10,11]

2. Clypeus: entirely or almost entirely yellow [9]

3. Mandible: distally with narrow red-brown edge [10,11]

4. Ratio distance between hind ocelli (POL) : distance hind ocellus to eye edge (OOL) = 1,4 – 2,0 [9,10,11]

5. Antenna: flag segments almost cylindrical [9,10,11]

6. Antenna: flag dark coloured, at most on inside more or less red-brown [9]

THORAX

1. Scutellum: frontal furrow narrow and without transverse carinae [9,10,11]

2. Dorsal field propodeum limited by carina, without fine net-shaped wrinkles between the main sculpture [9,10,11]

ABDOMEN

1. Aedoeagus apically pointed [10]



References

1 Nederlands Soortenregister

2 Waarneming.nl

3 Peeters, T.M.J., C. van Achterberg, W.R.B. Heitmans, W.F. Klein, V. Lefeber, A.J. van Loon, A.A. Mabelis, H. Nieuwen-huijsen, M. Reemer, J. de Rond, J. Smit, H.H.W. Velthuis, 2004. De wespen en mieren van Nederland (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). – Nederlandse Fauna 6. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, Leiden, knnv Uitgeverij, Utrecht & European Invertebrate Survey – Nederland, Leiden.

4 DANKS, Hugh V. Biology of some stem‐nesting aculeate Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 1971, 122.11: 323-395.

5 Koch, F. (2002), Blösch, M. (2000). Die Grabwespen Deutschlands – Lebens‐weise, Verhalten, Verbreitung. 71. Teil. In Dahl, F.: Die Tierwelt Deutschlands. Begr.: 1925. – Keltern (Goecke & Evers). – 480 S. 341 Farbfotos. ISBN 3‐931374‐26‐2 (hardcover). DM 98,–. Zool. Reihe, 78: 353-353. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20020780208

6 DOROW, WHO. 3.7 Hymenoptera: Aculeata (Stechimmen). Schönbuche. Zoologische Unter suchungen, 1990, 1992: 127-264.

7 WOYDAK, Horst. Hymenoptera Aculeata Westfalica Familia: Sphecidae (Grabwespen), 1996, 3-135.

8 DANKS, Hugh V. Biology of some stem‐nesting aculeate Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 1971, 122.11: 323-395.

9 KLEIN, Wim. De graafwespen van de Benelux. Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, Utrecht, 1996, 1-130. + KLEIN, Wim. De graafwespen van de Benelux: supplement. Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, 1999.

10 JACOBS, H. J (2007): Die Grabwespen Deutschlands Ampulicidae. Sphecidae, Crabronidae–Bestimmungsschlüssel in Blank, SM & Taeger, A (Hrsg): Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meeresteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise, Hymenoptera III–Keltern, Goecke & Evers, 79: 1-207.

11 Hermann Dollfuss, "Bestimmungsschlüssel der Grabwespen Nord- und Zentraleuropas (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) mit speziellen Angaben zur Grabwespenfauna Österreichs", Publikation der Botanischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft am O.Ö.Landesmuseum Linz, LINZ, 20. Dezember 1991

12 LOMHOLDT, O. 1975-1976; 1984 (2. Auflage). The Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 4.1: 2.

13 BITSCH, Jacques; LECLERCQ, Jean. Hyménoptères Sphecidae d'Europe occidentale. Fédération française des sociétés de sciences naturelles, 1993.

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