Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎

Last update: 25 September 2022
SPECIES: Trypoxylon attenuatum
GENUS: TRYPOXYLON
FAMILY: CRABRONIDAE



OBSERVATION:
2021-VII-08

YEARS:
2021

MONTHS:
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec


Official name:

Synonyms:

Trypoxylon attenuatum [1]


see more on: www.gbif.org

Etymology:

attenuatum

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, imago

CONTENTS

1. Distribution
2. Behaviour
3. Plant relations
4. Prey relations
5. Parasitic relations
6. Identification

 

1. DISTRIBUTION

Trypoxylon attenuatum is an uncommon wasp [2] that occurs throughout the Netherlands with a peak in the southern province Zuid-Limburg [3] .

Garden species

The species has been observed in our garden for the first time in 2021.

2. BEHAVIOUR

2.1. ACTIVITY

The species is active from beginning of April until half October [3].

Two generations per year are possible [5,7,13].

The daily activities start at 9 in the morning [7] with an activity peak in the afternoon [7]. The species is active in temperature of +20° or higher [7].

2.2. DEVELOPMENT

Nest

The females of this hypergeic species gnaw their nests in the pith of natural tube-like structures like plant stems and reed roofs, and Lipara (DIPTERA) galls in reed [5].

The nests consist of corridors with a length of 6 to 12 cm [3] in which a sequential row of three [8] to seven brood cells [3,5] are constructed. The brood cells for males measure ±7,2mm in length. Their length and diameter are smaller than those for females which measure 8,5mm [5,13] in length. The nest tunnel diameter varies between 2-5 mm [6].

Cells are provisioned with 6-31 prey specimen [3,6,8] with a maximum arond 30 [3,6].

Brood cells are separated with a 0,2mm thin wall of mud [13]. The walls become thicker towards the nest entrance [13].

The nest often includes a vestibular cel [4,7,13,14], with or without some prey specimen [13], which can be short [4,14] long [14] or missing altogether [4,13,14]. Intercalary cells and double nest plugs are rarely present [6].

Egg

Trypoxylon eggs are saussage shaped [13]. The egg is positioned on one of the last provisioned spiders before closing the cells [13].

Larva

The yellowish larva spins a light brown cocoon that is suspended in threads closely behind the frontal cell wall, in the middle, or at the bottom of the cell [5,13]. A detailed description of the larva can be found in [Asis] [6].

Depending on the environment temperature the adult wasp will emerge over a week [13]. The species knows potandry and often there will be more males than females [5,7].

2.3. BEE HOTEL

The species will use bee hotels and artificial nesting structures [4,5,13].

They nest in drill holes of 2,5 – 4 mm [5,13].

3. PLANT RELATIONS

3.1. WOOD TYPES

The following wood types are mentioned in literature as medium for the wasp to built her nests

Adoxaceae
(Moschatel family))

Sambucus (Elder) [3,5]
Asteraceae
(Composite family)

Cirsium (Plume thistles) [13]
Onagraceae
(Willowherb family)

Chamaenerion [13]
Poaceae
(Grasses)

Phragmites [8]
Phragmites australis (Common reed) [3,5,6,14]
Rosaceae
(Rozenfamilie)

Rosa (Roos) [3]

Rubus (Braam) [3,5,6,8,13]
Scrophulariaceae
(Helmkruidfamilie)

Toorts (Verbascum) [3]

Simaroubaceae

Ailanthus
Ailanthus altissima (Tree of Heaven) [6]

3.2. FOOD PLANTS

The following plant species are mentioned in literature as food sources:

Apiaceae
(Umbellifers)

Aegopodium [5,8]

Angelica [5,8]

Heracleum (Hogweed) [8]

Pastinaca
Pastinaca sativa (Parsnip) [5]

The wasps feed on honeydew as well [5].

Garden species

The garden provides some of these food plants but I have not observed the species on it yet:

Apiaceae
(Umbellifers)

Foeniculum
Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel)

Pastinaca
Pastinaca sativa (Parsnip)

4. PREY RELATIONS

The species uses adult [6,13] and immature [6,13] spiders (Araneae) [3,5] for her brood. The prey spectrum consists for a large part of web building spiders [13].

The following species and group occurring in the Netherlands [1] are mentioned in literature:


Araneidae
(Orb-weaver spiders)
preference group [6]

Araneus
Araneus sturmi [6]

Araniella
Araniella cucurbitina (Cucumber green orb spider) [6immature]

Cercidia
Cercidia prominens [13]

Hypsosinga
Hypsosinga albovittata [13als Singa albovittata]
Hypsosinga pygmaea [13als Singa pygmaea]

Gibbaranea
Gibbaranea bituberculata [6immature]
Linyphiidae [5,6,7,12]
(Money spiders)

preference group [6]

Bolyphantes [3,8+12als Bolyphaltes]

Cercidia
Cercidia prominens [13]

Floronia
Floronia bucculenta [6]

Microlinyphia
Microlinyphia pusilla [6]

Microneta
Microneta viaria [6]
Oxyopidae
Oxyopes
– Oxyopes heterophthalmus [6]

Salticidae [6]
(Jumping spiders)


Pseudeuophrys
Pseudeuophrys erratica [13als Euophrys erratica]

Tetragnathidae
preference group [6]

Pachygnatha [6]
Thomisidae [6,7]
(Crab spiders)

Synema
– Synema globosum [6onvolw]

Thomisus
Thomisus onustus [6onvolw]

Xysticus [6onvolw]

Prooisoorten buiten Nederland:

Araneidae
(Orb-weaver spiders)

Larinioides
Larinioides sclopetarius [6]
Theridiidae
Kochiura
Kochiura aulica [6als Anelosimus aulicus]

5. PARASITIC RELATIONS

The following species and groups occurring in the Netherlands [1] are mentioned in literature:

Chalcidoidae
(Chalcid wasps)

Eurytomidae
Eurytoma [13]
Eurytoma nodularis [5,3+8als Eurytoma rubicola]

Torymus
Torymus armatus [13 als Diomorus armatus]

Chrysididae
(Cuckoo wasps)

Pseudomalus
Pseudomalus auratus [3,6,5+8+12+13als omalus auratus]
Pseudomalus pusillus [3,5+8+12als omalus pusillus]

Trichrysis

Trichrysis cyanea
[3,5,6,8,12,13]
Ichneumonidae
(Ichneumon wasps)

Bathythrix
Bathythrix claviger [13als Ischnurgops claviger]
Bathythrix fragiIis [13als Ischnurgops fragilis]

Enclisis
Enclisis macilenta [5als Caenocryptus inflatus = Enclisis inflatus[16],13als Caenocryptus macilentus]

Ephialtes
Ephialtes manifestator [3]

Mastrus [13]

Diptera
(Flies)

Sarcophagidae
Amobia
Amobia signata [3+8+12als Pachyophthalmus signatus, 15]

Tachinidae [13]

Parasitaire soorten buiten Nederland:

Chrysididae
(Cuckoo wasps)

Chrysidea
Chrysis graelsii [6als Chrysis sybarita]
Chrysidea pumila [6]
Ichneumonidae
(Ichneumon wasps)

Hoplocryptus
Hoplocryptus coxator [5als H. rubi ]

6. IDENTIFICATION

Length males: 7,5 – 10 mm
Length females: 9 – 12 mm

Genus

The genus Trypoxylon can be identified using the following characters:

1.  Forewing: with one submarginal cell [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, Trypoxylon: forewing with one submarginal cell

2. Eye: inner edge with deep U-shaped emargination [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, inner edge eye with deep U-shaped emargination

3. Abdomen: black [10,11]. Wasp entirely black [9]

4. Abdomen: relatively very long [9,-11]
The abdomen protrudes relatively far from beneath the wings.

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, imago


specimen caught for photo identification on 08-vii-2021, length ±12mm

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, imago
Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, imago
Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, imago
Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, imago

1. Antenna with 12 segments [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, antenna with twelve segments

2. Abdomen with 6 segments [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, abdomen with six segments

HEAD

1. Distance between eyes vertex (l1) larger than distance between eyes at the clypeus (l2) [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, distance between eyes on vertex (l1) larger than distance between eyes at clypeus (l2)

2. Forehead (frons): without a shield-like area limited by carinae [10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, frons without a shield-like area limited by carinae

3. Forehead: medial keel above antennal inplant weakly elevated, en profil without clear bend towards forehead line [10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, medial keel forehead weakly elevated above antennae implants, en profil no clear indentation

4. Clypeus: apical edge middle lobe weakly protruding [9,10,11], with obtuse, rounded [9], side angles [10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, clypeus frontal lobe weakly extended, with obtuse side angles

5. Occipital carina: lower part occipital carina not enlarged [9,10]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, lower part occipital carina not enlarged

6. Kop: upper part back head sparingly covered with prostrate hairs [10]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, upper part back head sparingly covered with prostrate hairs

THORAX

1. Upper side thorax (mesonotum): mat [10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, mesonotum mat

2. Pronotum: rear edge black [9,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, rear edge pronotum black

3. Foreleg: shin (tibia) and tarsus black [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, foreleg shin and tarsus black

ABDOMEN

1. Length tergite 1 (l1) about as long as combined length tergites 2 and 3 (l2) [9,10,11]

Trypoxylon attenuatum ♀︎, length tergite 1 about as long as combined length of tergites 2 and 3




1. Antenna with 13 segments [9,10,11]

2. Abdomen with 7 segments [9,10,11]

HEAD

1. Distance between eyes vertex (l1) larger than distance between eyes at the clypeus (l2) [9,10,11]

2. Forehead (frons): without a shield-like area limited by carinae [10,11]

3. Forehead: medial keel above antennal inplant weakly elevated, en profil without clear bend towards forehead line [10,11]

4. Occipital carina: lower part occipital carina not enlarged [9,10]

5. Antenna: apically weakly enlarged [11]

6. Antenna: last member as long as the four previous members together

THORAX

1. Upper side thorax (mesonotum): mat [10,11]

2. Pronotum: rear edge black [9,10,11]

3. Foreleg: shin (tibia) and tarsus black [9,10,11]

ABDOMEN

1. Length tergite 1 (l1) about as long as combined length tergites 2 and 3 (l2) [9,10,11]

2. Genitals: apical part parameres split no deeper than hook aedoegus [10]; gonostyle split over only 1/3 its length [9]

3. Genitals: base parameres with long straight bristles [10]



References

1 Nederlands Soortenregister

2 Waarneming.nl

3 Peeters, T.M.J., C. van Achterberg, W.R.B. Heitmans, W.F. Klein, V. Lefeber, A.J. van Loon, A.A. Mabelis, H. Nieuwen-huijsen, M. Reemer, J. de Rond, J. Smit, H.H.W. Velthuis, 2004. De wespen en mieren van Nederland (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). – Nederlandse Fauna 6. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, Leiden, knnv Uitgeverij, Utrecht & European Invertebrate Survey – Nederland, Leiden.

4 Breugel, P. van 2014. Gasten van bijenhotels. – EIS Kenniscentrum Insecten en andere ongewervelden & Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden.

5 Koch, F. (2002), Blösch, M. (2000). Die Grabwespen Deutschlands – Lebens‐weise, Verhalten, Verbreitung. 71. Teil. In Dahl, F.: Die Tierwelt Deutschlands. Begr.: 1925. – Keltern (Goecke & Evers). – 480 S. 341 Farbfotos. ISBN 3‐931374‐26‐2 (hardcover). DM 98,–. Zool. Reihe, 78: 353-353. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20020780208

6 Asís, J. D., Tormos, J., & Gayubo, S. F. (1994). Biological Observations on Trypoxylon attenuatum and Description of Its Mature Larva and Its Natural Enemy Trichrysis cyanea (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae, Chrysididae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 67(2), 199–207. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25085509

7 ABRAHAM, R. Zur Biologie von Trypoxylon attenuatum Smith, 1851 und T. figulus (Linnaeus, 1758)(Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Entomologische Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Hamburg, 1982.

8 WOYDAK, Horst. Hymenoptera Aculeata Westfalica Familia: Sphecidae (Grabwespen), 1996, 3-135.

9 KLEIN, Wim. De graafwespen van de Benelux. Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, Utrecht, 1996, 1-130. + KLEIN, Wim. De graafwespen van de Benelux: supplement. Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, 1999.

10 JACOBS, H. J (2007): Die Grabwespen Deutschlands Ampulicidae. Sphecidae, Crabronidae–Bestimmungsschlüssel in Blank, SM & Taeger, A (Hrsg): Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meeresteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise, Hymenoptera III–Keltern, Goecke & Evers, 79: 1-207.

11 Hermann Dollfuss, "Bestimmungsschlüssel der Grabwespen Nord- und Zentraleuropas (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) mit speziellen Angaben zur Grabwespenfauna Österreichs", Publikation der Botanischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft am O.Ö.Landesmuseum Linz, LINZ, 20. Dezember 1991

12 LOMHOLDT, O. 1975-1976; 1984 (2. Auflage). The Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 4.1: 2.

13 DANKS, Hugh V. Biology of some stem‐nesting aculeate Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 1971, 122.11: 323-395.

14 ASÍS, Josep D., et al. The significance of the vestibular cell in trap nesting wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): Does its presence reduce mortality?. Journal of insect behavior, 2007, 20.2: 289-305.

15 POVOLNY, D. The flesh-flies of Central Europe (Insecta, Diptera, Sarcophagidae). Spixiana supplement, 1997, 24: 1-260.

16 FITTON, Michael Geoffrey. A catalogue and reclassification of the Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) described by CG Thomson. 1982.

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