Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎♂︎

Last update: 14 October 2021
SPECIES: Pemphredon lugubris
GENUS: PEMPHREDON
FAMILY: Digger wasps (CRABRONIDAE)



OBSERVATION:
2021-V-302021-V-28

YEARS:
2021

MONTHS:
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec


Official name:

Synonyms:

Pamphredon lugubris [1]

Pemphredon pacifica (Gussakovskij 1932)

Pemphredon pacificus (Gussakovskij 1932)

see more on: www.gbif.org

Etymology:

lugubris

Latin: mourning

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎
Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎

CONTENTS

1. Distribution
2. Behaviour
3. Plant relations
4. Prey relations
5. Parasitic relations
6. Identification

1. DISTRIBUTION

Pemphredon lugubris is a common wasp [2] that occurs throughout the Netherlands [3].

2. BEHAVIOUR

2.1. ACTIVITY

THe species is active from the beginning of May to the beginning of November [3]. There are two generations per year [3,14], in the beginning of summer and autumn [14].

2.2. DEVELOPMENT

Nest

The femals gnaw nests in decaying wood and use natural tubes like plantstemms or abandoned beetle tunnels [4,5,12,14]. Also wooden poles may be used [4].

Branched tunnels with a diameter of 4-5 mm are gnawed in wood [14]. The branches will include blind cells that are filled with wood pulp that may be used later on to fill up the main corridor [5].
Sometimes a gall is used in which the length of the tunnel is determined by the size of the fall [5].

The species sometimes tries to use the nest of Ectemnius cavifrons but are usually scared off. Should that not be the case she will use the main corridor as a starting point to gnaw her own branched off tunnels [3,5].

The broodcells in the plantstemms are constructed in a sequwntial row [14].
In all media wthe broodcells are separated with a 1-2mm thick wall of woodpulp [5].

Every broodcell contains 40 aphids [5,12]. When the cell is fully provisioned one egg is lain on an aphid in the middle or back of the broodcell [5].

2.3. BEE HOTEL

Females can be seen on bee hotels where they collect nesting materials [17].

Nestblocks in good condition are not suitable for nesting as the females only tunnel in decaying wood which is softer. Possibly offering bamboo stemms or tubes out of other plant stemms that still contain the marrow, as part of artificial nesting may increase chances for the species to use the bee hotel.

My own observations of the species include a female P. lugubris on the bee hotel section II nestblock 10 filled with bamboo and Hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum) stemms.

Also I’ve noticed that nest blocks that are old and deteriorating become more interesting for tunneling digger wasps. Possibly Pemphredon will start to use this wood as well.

I’ve not seen any males on the bee hotel. Also the literature does not mention this.

2.4. MATING

My own observations include the species mating on Common dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). The males were continuesly present in and around the plant. Every now and then a female would approach that was immediately approached after landing, see here.

2.5. HUNTING

Caught prey are paralized by bites in the neck region [12,16]. As far as known all members of the subfamily Pemphredoninae, almost all aphid hunters, do not use the stinger [12,16].

The prey is transported to the nest using the mandibles [4,12].

3. PLANT RELATIONS

3.1. WOOD TYPES

The following wood types are mentioned in literature as medium for the wasp to built her nests in:

Adoxaceae
(Moschatel family)
Sambucus (Elder) [4,15]
Anacardiaceae
(Sumac family)
Rhus (Sumac) [15]
Asteraceae [5]
(Composite family)
Artemisia [4]
Malvaceae
(Mallows)
Hibiscus [5]
Oleaceae 
(Olive family)
Fraxinus (Ash) [15]
Rosaceae
(Rose family)
Rosa (Rose) [15]

Rubus (Blackberries) [4,15]
SimaroubaceaeAilanthus [4]

3.2. FOOD PLANTS

The following wood types are mentioned in literature as foodsources:

Adoxaceae
(Moschatel family)
Sambucus (Elder) [14]
Apiaceae [5]
(Umbellifers)
Asteraceae [5]
(Composite family)

The wasp also lick honeydew of leaves [14].

Garden species

In the garden some umbellifers are present but I have not observed the species on it.

Apicaceae [5]
(Schermbloemenfamilie)
Foeniculum
Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel)

Pastinaca
– Pastinaca sativa (Parsnip)
Asteraceae [5]
(Composietenfamilie)
Anthemis
–  Anthemis tinctoria (Yellow chamomile)

Cichorium
Cichorium intibus (Common cichory)

Solidago
Solidago gigantea (Giant goldenrod)

Tanacetum
Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy)

Taraxacum
Taraxacum officinale (Common dandelion)

3.3. PREY PLANTS

Pemphredon finds her prey on their food plants.

The following plants are mentioned in literature:

Caryophyllaceae
(Carnation family)
Stellaria
Stellaria media [15]

Garden species

The garden does not contain Caryophyllaceae.

4. PREY RELATIONS

The species uses only larger [5,12] aphids (Aphidoidea) for her brood [3,4,5,9,12,13,14]. She is not picky and will use whatever aphid species is present [4].
Sometimes an adult will eat of a caught aphid without transporting it to the nest [4].

The following species and group occuring in the Netherlands [1] are mentioned in literature:

Aphidoidea (Aphids) [3,9]Aphis
Aphis sumbuci (Elder aphid) [5,12]

Brachycaudus
Brachycaudus prunicola (Black peach aphid) [5 (as Anuraphis persicae)]

Lachnus
Lachnus pallipes [16]

Myzus
Myzus cerasi (Black cherry aphid) [5]

Garden species

None of the prey species have been observed yet in the garden.

5. PARASITIC RELATIONS

The following species and group occuring in the Netherlands [1] are mentioned in literature:

Chrysididae
(Cuckoo wasps)

Elampus
Elampus constrictus [4(as Omalus constrictus)]

Omalus
*
Omalus aeneus [5,8]

Philoctetes
Philoctetes truncatus [3]

Pseudomalus*
Pseudomalus auratus [4,8][14(as Ellampus auratus)]
➡︎ brood idiobiont ectoparasitoid (eats food reserve and larva) [14]
Pseudomalus triangulifer [8,13]
Pseudomalus violaceus [3,8,13][4(as Omalus violaceus)]
Ichneumonidae
(Sluipwespen)

Perithous
Perithous divinator [3,4,5]
Perithous scurra [3,5(as P.mediator)]
Perithous septemcinctorius [6,7]
*cuckoo wasp female does not enter the nest, instead parasitizes a living aphid that is then caught by the P. lugubris female and brought to the nest [8]

6. IDENTIFICATION

Length males: 7,5 – 10 mm
Length females: 10 – 11,5 mm

Genus

The genus Pemphredon can be identified using the following characters:

1.  Forewing: with two submarginal cells [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, Pemphredon: forewing with two submarginal cells

2. Forewing: with two discoidal cells [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, Pemphredon: forewing with two submarginal cells

3. Forewing: pterostigma smaller than marginal cell [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, Pemphredon: pterostigma smaller than marginal cell

4. Thorax: pronotum not enlarged, sides do not reach tegula [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, Pemphredon: pronotum not enlarged, hind edge does not reach tegula

5. Thorax: notauli do not reach back edge mesonotum [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, Pemphredon: notauli do not reach back edge

6. Abdomen: front first abdominal segment petiolate [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, Pemphredon: abdominal segment 1 frontally petiolate



specimen caught for photo identification on 09-x-2021, length ±13mm

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎
Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎
Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎
Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎
  1. Antenna with 12 segments [9,10,11]
Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, antenna with 12 segments

2. Abdomen with 6 segments [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, abdomen with 6 segments

3. Clypeus with few silver hairs [10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, clypeus with few silver hairs

4. Tergite 6 with pygydium [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎

HEAD

1. Clypeus: frontal edge straight [10,11] ([KLEIN]: rounded [9])

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, clypeus front edge cut straight

2. No lump between the antennal implants [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, no lump between antennal implants
Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, no lump between antennal implants

3. Antennal segment 3 about 2,4-3x as long as wide [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, antennal segment 3 length (l) 2,4-3 x width (w)

THORAX

1. Forewing: second discoidal transverse vein joins submarginalcell 2 [9,(10),11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, second discoidal transverse vein joins submarginalcell 2

2. Side thorax (mesopleuron): with transverse wrinkled structure in front of middle coxa [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, mesopleuron in front of middle coxa with transverse wrinkled structure

3. Propodeum: edge dorsal field unclearly limited [9,11], narrow, with structure [10,11] and matt [10]

ABDOMEN

1. Petiolus: longer than half of tergite 1 [10], longer than half-length postpetiolus [11], long and slender [9]

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, petiolus (P) longer than postpetiolus (PP)

2. Pygydium long and narrow [9,10,11], not keel shaped [10]

Pemphredon lugubris ♀︎, pygydium long and narrow



specimen caught for photo identification on 30-v-2021, length ±9mm

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎
Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎
Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎
Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎


  1. Antenna with 13 segments [9,10,11]
Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, antennae with 13 segments

2. Clypeus: with silver hairs [10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎

3. Tergite 7 without pygidium [9,10,11]

HEAD

1. Clypeus edge [11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, clypeus edge

2. No lump between the antennal implants [(9),10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, no lump between antennal implants
Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, no lump between antennal implants

3. Antennal members 5 – 9 with tyloids [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, tyloïden on antenna segments 5 – 9

THORAX

1. Middle tarsal segment 1 apically almost straight [10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, middle tarsus member 1 apically almost straight

2. Side thorax (mesopleuron): with clear transverse wrinkled structure in front of middle coxa [9,10,11]

Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, mesopleuron in front of middle coxa with transverse stripes

ABDOMEN

  1. Petiolus: longer than tergite 1 [10] (postpetiolus [11]), long and slender [9]
Pemphredon lugubris ♂︎, petiole (P) longer than postpetiole (Pp)


References

1 Nederlands Soortenregister

2 Waarneming.nl

3 Peeters, T.M.J., C. van Achterberg, W.R.B. Heitmans, W.F. Klein, V. Lefeber, A.J. van Loon, A.A. Mabelis, H. Nieuwen-huijsen, M. Reemer, J. de Rond, J. Smit, H.H.W. Velthuis, 2004. De wespen en mieren van Nederland (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). – Nederlandse Fauna 6. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, Leiden, knnv Uitgeverij, Utrecht & European Invertebrate Survey – Nederland, Leiden.

4 BOHART, Richard M.; BOHART, Richard Mitchell; MENKE, Arnold S. Sphecid wasps of the world: a generic revision. Univ of California Press, 1976.

5 Koch, F. (2002), Blösch, M. (2000). Die Grabwespen Deutschlands – Lebens‐weise, Verhalten, Verbreitung. 71. Teil. In Dahl, F.: Die Tierwelt Deutschlands. Begr.: 1925. – Keltern (Goecke & Evers). – 480 S. 341 Farbfotos. ISBN 3‐931374‐26‐2 (hardcover). DM 98,–. Zool. Reihe, 78: 353-353. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20020780208

6 ALIYEV, Azer; MAHARRAMOVA, Sheyda. Ichneumonidae in der Sammlung des Zoologischen Institutes der NAS der Republik Azerbaijan. Teil I. Unterfamilie Pimplinae (Hymenoptera). Beiträge zur Entomologie= Contributions to Entomology, 2009, 59.2: 271-286.

7 Martynova, Kate & Fateryga, Alexander. (2014). Omalus sculpticollis as the Main Enemy of Psenulus fuscipennis (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae, Crabronidae) in the Crimea, Ukraine. Vestnik Zoologii. 48. 11-26. 10.2478/vzoo-2014-0002.

8 PAUKKUNEN, Juho, et al. An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries, with description of a new species. ZooKeys, 2015, 548: 1.

9 KLEIN, Wim. De graafwespen van de Benelux. Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, Utrecht, 1996, 1-130. + KLEIN, Wim. De graafwespen van de Benelux: supplement. Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, 1999.

10 JACOBS, H. J (2007): Die Grabwespen Deutschlands Ampulicidae. Sphecidae, Crabronidae–Bestimmungsschlüssel in Blank, SM & Taeger, A (Hrsg): Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meeresteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise, Hymenoptera III–Keltern, Goecke & Evers, 79: 1-207.

11 Hermann Dollfuss, "Bestimmungsschlüssel der Grabwespen Nord- und Zentraleuropas (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) mit speziellen Angaben zur Grabwespenfauna Österreichs", Publikation der Botanischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft am O.Ö.Landesmuseum Linz, LINZ, 20. Dezember 1991

12 LOMHOLDT, O. 1975-1976; 1984 (2. Auflage). The Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 4.1: 2.

13 LELEJ, Arkady (ed.). Wasp fauna (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae, Chrysididae, Dryinidae, Tiphiidae, Mutillidae, Scoliidae, Pompilidae, Vespidae, Sphecidae, Crabronidae & Trigonalyidae) of Mordovia State Nature Reserve and its surroundings in Russia. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 2019, 11.2: 13195-13250.

14 TSUNEKI, Katsuji. Ethological studies on the Japanese species of Pemphredon (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae), with notes on their parasites, Ellampus spp.(Hym., Chrysididae)(With 5 Text-figures). 北海道大學理學部紀要, 1952, 11.1: 57-75.

15 FABIAN, Yvonne, et al. Plant diversity in a nutshell: testing for small‐scale effects on trap nesting wild bees and wasps. Ecosphere, 2014, 5.2: 1-18.

16 PIEK, Tom (ed.). Venoms of the Hymenoptera: biochemical, pharmacological and behavioural aspects. Elsevier, 2013.

17 Breugel, P. van 2014. Gasten van bijenhotels. – EIS Kenniscentrum Insecten en andere ongewervelden & Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *