Gelis spurius ♀︎

Last update: 12 March 2021
SPECIES: Gelis spurius
GENUS: GELIS
FAMILY: Ichneumon wasps (ICHNEUMONIDAE)



OBSERVATION:
2021-VIII-242021-II-28

YEARS:
2021

MONTHS:
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec


Official name

Synonyms

Gelis spurius [1]

Pezomachus spurius [5]

see more on: www.gbif.org

Gelis spurius ♀︎

CONTENTS

1. Distribution
2. Behaviour
3. Plant relations
4. Parasitic relations
5. Identification

1. DISTRIBUTION

The ichneumon wasp Gelis spurius is a common wasp in the Netherlands [2].

2. BEHAVIOUR

2.1. ACTIVITY

The female can be found the whole year through and overwinter as adults [3].

The specimen used in this post was caught in februari, see here.

It is suspected the species is multivoltine [3].

2.2. DEVELOPMENT

The species is an idiobiont ectoparasitoid that can occur as primary and as well as secundary pseudohyperparasitoid on ichneumonid and braconid wasps [3,4].

3. FOOD PLANTS

The adults wasps feed on nectar and honeydew [3]. Flower visits are limited to specific weather conditions, like during drizzle or muggy weather and is probably secondary to licking up honeydew and moist from leaves [3]. Possibly pollen grains stuck on the sticky surfaces of hairy leaves are eaten as well [3].

In literature the following plants and groups are cited in the context of licking up food and moisture:

Birch family
(Betulaceae)
Corylus avellana (Common hazel) [3]
Alnus alnobetula (Green alder) [3]
Netle family
(Urticaceae)
Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle) [3]

Garden species

In the garden the following plants are present:

Birch family
(Betulaceae)
Corylus avellana (Common hazel)
Netle family
(Urticaceae)
Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle)

Feeding in captivity

In order to be able to photograph the wasp properly I had kept her for a longer duration (few weeks) and fed her twice per day a cotton soaked in water and a cotton soaked in sugar water.

After two weeks (March 9) the wasp escaped during a photoshoot and I could not find her anymore. But after some time I noticed her on a dry cotton lying somewhere on the desk and she was clearly trying to drink from it. Apparently she was conditioned on the cottons during her captivity.

4. PARASITIC RELATIONS

Gelis spurius is connected as pseudohyperparasitoid on Ichneumonidae and Braconidae, and can be found / is reared from a wide range of hosts.
The following prey groups and species occurring in the Netherlands [1] are cited in literature, including the primary host (hyperparasitism):

Flies
(Diptera)
Lauxaniidae
Sapromyza [4]

Tephritidae
Rhagoletis
Rhagoletis alternata [4]
Moths
(Lepidoptera)
Adelidae
Adela
Adela reaumurella [4]
of
Incurvariidae
Incurvaria
Incurvaria pectinea [4]

Psychidae
Dahlica [4]

Psyche
Psyche casta [4]
Wasps
(Parasitica)
Braconidae
Apanteles [4]

Coeloides
Coeloides scolyticida [4,6] parasite on:
Scolytus scolytus or
Scolytus multistriatus

Microplitis
Microplitis mandibularis [4,6] parasite on Noctuidae

Ichneumonidae
Hyposoter [4] parasite on:
Melitaea cinxia

5. IDENTIFICATION

Length: 1,8 – 4,4 mm

Female are apterous [4].
Males are brachypterous or macropterous [4].

Genus

The genus Gelis can be recognized by the following characters:

1.  2nd and 3rd tergites fully separated, or only partially or unclearly merged [5] (here clearly separated)

Gelis spurius ♀︎, 2nd and 3rd tergite clearly separated

2. 1st tergite with or without dorsal lateral carina [5] (here with carina)

Gelis spurius ♀︎, dorsal lateral carinae clear

3. 1st tergite not or rarely apically striped [5] (here not striped)

Gelis spurius ♀︎, tergite 1 apically not striped

4. When tergite 1 apically striped than laterotergite of the 2nd abdominal segment separated and wide [5] (Here not the case)

Gelis spurius ♀︎, Gelis: laterotergite abdominalsegment 2 not separated from tergite


Gelis spurius ♀︎
Gelis spurius ♀︎
Gelis spurius ♀︎
Gelis spurius ♀︎
Gelis spurius ♀︎, propodeum
Gelis spurius ♀︎, ovipositor


HEAD

1. Head black [4]
2. Flagellum segments basally or entirely orange- to yellowbrown [4]
3. Seldom scapus (antennal segment 1) partly dark [4]
3. Antenna with 16-19 segments [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, antennae with 16-19 segments (here 19)

4. Antennal segment 3 is 2,2-2,5x longer than wide (here 2,4x) (lateral view) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, antennal segment 3 length (l) = 2,2-2,5x width (w) (here ±2,4x)

5. Antennal segment 7 is 1,1-1,6x longer than wide (here 1,6x) (lateral view) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, antennal segment 7 length (l) = 1,1-1,6x width (w) (here ±1,6x)

6. Head structure granulated [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, head granulate

7. Distance between rear ocelli ( OOL ) is about 0,7-1,2x the distance between the rear ocellus and the inner eye edge ( POL ) [4] (here ±1,2x)

Gelis spurius ♀︎, ratio length between rear ocelli (ool) : length between rear ocellus and inneredge eye = 0,7-1,2

8. Head behind eyes somewhat strongly to weakly narrowed [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, head behind eyes somewhat strongly to weakly narrowed

9. Frons densely haired, finely to very finely puntured [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, frons densely haired, finely to very finely punctated

10. Cheek is 1,0-1,2x longer than mandible base width, 1,5x in small specimen (here ±1,0x) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, cheeks 1,0-1,2x width mandible base, 1,5x in smaller specimen (here ±1x)

11. Malar space without a furrow or weakly developed [4] (here weakly developed)

Gelis spurius ♀︎, malar space furrow weakly developed
Gelis spurius ♀︎, malar space furrow weakly developed

12. Clypeus black, seldom brown (here black) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎

13. Clypeus convex [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, clypeus convex

14. Clypeus with clear punctation [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, clypeus with clear punctation

15. Clypeus lower edge weakly convex or sometimes straight, without tooth

Gelis spurius ♀︎, clypeus loweredge weakly convex, sometimes straight, without tooth

16. Upper mandible tooth somewhat longer than lower tooth [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, upper mandible tooth somewhat longer than lower

17. Mandible, except for teeth, yellowbrown to reddish (here reddish) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, mandibles, except teeth, yellowbrown to reddish

18. Palps brown to orangebrown [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, palps brown to orangebrown

19. Width eye is 1,8-2,1x length temple [5]

BORSTSTUK

1. Thorax black [4]
2. Mesonotum and pronotum not separated [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, mesonotum and pronotum not separated

3. Mesonotum length = 0,5-0,7x width (here ±0,7x) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, mesontum length (l) = 0,5-0,7x width (w) (here ±0,7)

4. Mesonotum almost flat or moderately convex [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, mesanotum almost flat, or moderately convex

5. Mesonotum front with weak indentation in middle [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, front mesonotum in middle with weak indentation

6. scutellum not, or weakly limited, very short (here weakly limited) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, scutellum not or weakly limited, very short

7. Furrow between mesonotum and propodeum level and narrow [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, furrow between mesonotum and propodeum flat and narrow
Gelis spurius ♀︎, furrow between mesonotum and propodeum flat and narrow

8. Length mesonotum = 0,5-0,7x length area anterior [6]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, length mesonotum (m) = 0,5-0,7x area anterior (aa)

9. Mesosternum clearly shorter than width basal flagellum segment (segment 3) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, Mesosternum clearly shorter than width of basal flagellum segment (segment 3)

10. Propodeum dorsally densely haired, not clearly less than mesonotum [4]
11. Propodeum dorsally convex, as a rule not higher than mesonotum [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, propodeum dorsally densely haired, not clearly less than mesonotum

12. Propodeum with transverse carina, in middle widely interrupted or only indicated [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, propodeum with carina, in middle widely interrupted or only indicated

13. Legs orange to orangebrown [4]
14. Femora 3 (hindleg) 3,2-3,6x longer than high (here ±3,3x) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, length thigh III 3,2-3,6x width

15. Tibia 3 (hindleg) thickend, 5,3-6,0x longer than high (here ±5,3x) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, length tibia III 5,3-6,0x width

16. Shin 3 (hindleg) dorsally densely haired [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, tibia III dorsally densely haired

ABDOMEN

1. Abdomen black [4]
2. Tergites from tergite 2 laterally orange- to yellowbrown [4]
3. Tergites from tergite 6 of 7 entirely orange- to yellowbrown [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, tergites from tergite 2 lateral, and from tergite 6 or 7 entirely, orange- to yellowbrown

4. Narrow apical edges tergites orange- to yellowbrown [4]
5. Edges tergite 2 orange- to yellowbrown [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, narrow apical edges tergites orange- to yellowbrown

6. Abdomen densely haired [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, abdomen densely haired

7. Length tergite 1 is 1,3-1,6x width [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, length 1st tergite 1,3-1,6x width

8. Length laterotergite tergite 2 is 3,1-4,8x width (here ±3,1x) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, laterotergite tergite 2 length (l) = 3,1-4,8x width (w)

9. Ovipositor shafts are 0,6-0,7x longer than shin III (hindleg) (here ±0,7x) [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, ovipositorshafts 0,6-0,7x longer than tibia hindleg

10. Ovipositor with clear teeth ventrally [4]

Gelis spurius ♀︎, ovipositor with clear teeth ventrally




References

1 Nederlands Soortenregister

2 Waarneming.nl

3 SCHWARZ, M. Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis THUNBERG mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis SCHMIEDEKNECHT (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 2.

4 SCHWARZ, Martin. Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis Thunberg mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis Schwarz (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 3. na, 2002.

5 SCHWARZ, Martin. Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis Thunberg mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis Schmiedeknecht (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 1. na, 1995.

6 Schwarz, Martin & Shaw, Mark. (1999). Western Palaearctic Cyptinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in the National Museum of Scotland, with nomenclatural changes, taxonomic notes, rearing records and special reference to the British check list. Part 2. Genus Gelis thunberg (Phygadeuontini Gelina). Entomologist's Gazette. 50. 117-142.

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