Gelis bicolor ♀︎

Last update: 8 March 2021
SPECIES: Gelis bicolor
GENUS: GELIS
FAMILY: Ichneumon wasps (ICHNEUMONIDAE)



OBSERVATION:
2021-II-202021-II-152021-II-102021-II-09

YEARS:
2021

MONTHS:
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec


Official name

Synonyms

Gelis bicolor [1]

Ichneumon bicolor

zie meer op: www.gbif.org

Gelis bicolor ♀︎

CONTENTS

1. Distribution
2. Behaviour
3. Plant relations
4. Parasitic relations
5. Identification

1. DISTRIBUTION

The ichneumon wasp Gelis bicolor is a common wasp in the Netherlands [2].

2. BEHAVIOUR

2.1. ACTIVITY

The females can be found the whole year through and overwinter as adult [3].

2.2. DEVELOPMENT

The species develops in spider and is an idiobiontic ectoparasitoid [3]. Normally one wasp develops per eggsack [3] and the larva will eat the entire contents [4].

3. FOOD PLANTS

The adults wasps feed on nectar and honeydew [3]. Flower visits are limited to specific weather conditions, like during drizzle or muggy weather and is probably secondary to licking up honeydew and moist from leaves [3]. Possibly pollen grains stuck on the sticky surfaces of hairy leaves are eaten as well [3].

In literature the following plants and groups are cited in the context of licking up food and moisture:

Birch family
(Betulaceae)
Corylus avellana (Common hazel) [3]
Alnus alnobetula (Green alder) [3]
Netle family
(Urticaceae)
Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle) [3]

Garden species

In the garden the following plants are present:

Birch family
(Betulaceae)
Corylus avellana (Common hazel)
Netle family
(Urticaceae)
Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle)

4. PARASITIC RELATIONS

The species parasitizes the eggsacks of spiders as food for the larvae [3,4].
The following prey groups and species occurring in the Netherlands [1] are cited in literature:

Spiders
(Araneae)
Dictynidae (Mesh-webbed spiders)
Dictyna
Dictyna sp. [7]

Linyphiidae (Money spiders)
Floronia
Floronia bucculenta [4]

Mimetidae (Pirate spiders)
Ero
Ero cf. furcata [4]

Theridiidae (Comb-footed spiders)
Paidiscura
– Kleine boskogelspin (Paidiscura pallens) [7]

5. IDENTIFICATION

Length: 2,2 – 4,0 mm

Females are apterous [4].
Males are brachypterous or macropterous [4].

Genus

The genus Gelis can be recognized by the following characters:

1.  2nd and 3rd tergite fully separated, or only partially or unclearly merged [5]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: tergites 2 and 3 fully separated

2. 1st tergite with or without dorsal lateral carinae [5]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: tergite 1 with dorsal lateral carinae

3. 1st tergite not or seldom apically striped [5]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: tergite 1 apically not striped

4. If tergite 1 apically striped than laterotergite of 2nd abdominal segment separated [5] (Here not the case)

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: laterotergite abdominalsegment 2 not separated from tergite
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: laterotergite abdominalsegment 2 not separated from tergite


Gelis bicolor ♀︎
Gelis bicolor ♀︎
Gelis bicolor ♀︎
Gelis bicolor ♀︎
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, propodeum
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, ovipositor sheaths
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, ovipositor sheaths
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, ovipositor sheaths


HEAD

1. Head black [6]
2. Antennae with 20-22 segments [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, antennae with 20-22 segments

3. Antennal segment 3 is 2,5-3,4x longer than wide (lateral view) [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, antennal segment 3 is 2,5-3,4x longer (l) than wide (b) (lateral view) (here ±3x)

3. Antennal segment 7 is 1,3-1,8x longer than wide (lateral view) [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, antennal segment 7 is 1,3-1,8x longer (l) than wide (b) (lateral view) (here ±1,8x)

4. Distance between hind ocelli ( OOL ) is about 0,7-1,0x the distance between the hind ocellus and the inner eye edge ( POL ) [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, distance between hind ocelli (ool) is 0,7-1,0x distance between hind ocellus and inner eye edge (pol)

5. Clypeus under edge convex [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, lower edge clypeus convex

6. Genal groove deep [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, genal groove deep

7. Occipital carina connected with hypostomal carina at mandible base [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Occipital carina connected with hypostomal carina at mandible base

THORAX

1. Thorax and propodeum usually orange, in smaller specimen black to brown [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, thorax and propodeum brown to black

2. Mesonotum without clear medial longitudinal furrow [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, mesonotum seldom with medial longitudinal furrow

3. Mesonotum about 0,8-1,1x longer than wide [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, mesonotum length (l) is 0,8-1,1x width (b)

4. Scutellum not clearly limited, very short [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, scutellum not clearly limited, very short

5. Length mesonotum = 0,8-1,5x length area anterior [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, length mesonotum (lm) 0,8-1,5x length area anterior (la)

6. Slope rear mesonotum and propodeum unequal [6]
7. Propodeum about as high as mesonotum [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, slope mesonotum and propodeum rear unequal

8. Transverse carina on middle propodeum clear, straight not arched [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, transverse carina propodeum in middle clear and straight

9. Thigh (femur) hind leg 3,3-4,1x longer than high hoog (lateral view) [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, femur 3 length ±3,3-4,1x width (here ±3,8x) (lateral view)

ABDOMEN

1. Tergite 1 with dorsal lateral carinae, partly [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, tergite 1 with dorsal lateral carinae

2. Abdomen from tergite 2 black [6]
3. Abdomen densely haired [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, abdomen black from tergite 2

4. Ovipositor tip with fine to clear teeth ventrally




References

1 Nederlands Soortenregister

2 Waarneming.nl

3 SCHWARZ, M. Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis THUNBERG mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis SCHMIEDEKNECHT (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 2.

4 Finch, Oliver-David. (2005). The parasitoid complex and parasitoid-induced mortality of spiders (Araneae) in a Central European woodland. Journal of Natural History - J NATUR HIST. 39. 2339-2354. 10.1080/00222930500101720.

5 SCHWARZ, Martin. Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis Thunberg mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis Schmiedeknecht (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 1. na, 1995.

6 SCHWARZ, Martin. Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis Thunberg mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis Schwarz (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 3. na, 2002.

7 Schwarz, Martin & Shaw, Mark. (1999). Western Palaearctic Cyptinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in the National Museum of Scotland, with nomenclatural changes, taxonomic notes, rearing records and special reference to the British check list. Part 2. Genus Gelis thunberg (Phygadeuontini Gelina). Entomologist's Gazette. 50. 117-142.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *