Gelis bicolor ♀︎

Last update: 21 February 2021
SPECIES:
GENUS: GELIS
FAMILY: Ichneumon wasps (ICHNEUMONIDAE)



OBSERVATION:
2021-II-202021-II-152021-II-102021-II-09

YEARS:
2021

MONTHS:
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec


Official name

Synonyms

Gelis bicolor [1]

Ichneumon bicolor

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Gelis bicolor ♀︎

CONTENTS

1. Distribution
2. Behaviour
3. Plant relations
4. Parasitic relations
5. Identification

1. DISTRIBUTION

The ichneumon wasp Gelis bicolor is a common wasp in the Netherlands [2].

2. BEHAVIOUR

2.1. ACTIVITY

The females can be found the whole year through and overwinter as adult [3].

2.2. DEVELOPMENT

The species develops in spider and is an idiobiontic ectoparasite [3]. Normally one wasp develops per eggsack [3] and the larva will eat the entire contents [4].

3. FOOD PLANTS

The adults wasps feed on nectar and honeydew [3]. Flower visits are limited to specific weather conditions, like during drizzle or muggy weather and is probably secondary to licking up honeydew and moist from leaves [3]. Possibly pollen grains stuck on the sticky surfaces of hairy leaves are eaten as well [3].

In literature the following plants and groups are cited in the context of licking up food and moisture:

Birch family
(Betulaceae)
Corylus avellana (Common hazel) [3]
Alnus alnobetula (Green alder) [3]
Netle family
(Urticaceae)
Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle) [3]

Garden species

In the garden the following plants are present:

Birch family
(Betulaceae)
Corylus avellana (Common hazel)
Netle family
(Urticaceae)
Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle)

4. PARASITIC RELATIONS

The species parasitizes the eggsacks of spiders as food for the larvae [3,4].
The following prey groups and species occurring in the Netherlands [1] are cited in literature:

Spiders
(Araneae)
Linyphiidae (Money spiders)
Floronia
Floronia bucculenta [4]

Mimetidae (Pirate spiders)
Ero
Ero cf. furcata [4]

5. IDENTIFICATION

Length: 2,2 – 4,0 mm

Genus

The genus Gelis can be recognized by the following characters:

1.  2nd and 3rd tergite fully separated, or only partially or unclearly merged [5]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: tergites 2 and 3 fully separated

2. 1st tergite with or without dorsal lateral carinae [5]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: tergite 1 with dorsal lateral carinae

3. 1st tergite not or seldom apically striped [5]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: tergite 1 apically not striped

4. If tergite 1 apically striped than laterotergite of 2nd abdominal segment separated [5] (Here not the case)

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: laterotergite abdominalsegment 2 not separated from tergite
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Gelis: laterotergite abdominalsegment 2 not separated from tergite


Gelis bicolor ♀︎
Gelis bicolor ♀︎
Gelis bicolor ♀︎
Gelis bicolor ♀︎
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, propodeum
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, ovipositor sheaths
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, ovipositor sheaths
Gelis bicolor ♀︎, ovipositor sheaths


HEAD

1. Head black [6]
2. Antennae with 20-22 segments [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, antennae with 20-22 segments

3. Antennal segment 3 is 2,5-3,4x longer than wide (lateral view) [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, antennal segment 3 is 2,5-3,4x longer (l) than wide (b) (lateral view) (here ±3x)

3. Antennal segment 7 is 1,3-1,8x longer than wide (lateral view) [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, antennal segment 7 is 1,3-1,8x longer (l) than wide (b) (lateral view) (here ±1,8x)

4. Distance between hind ocelli ( OOL ) is about 0,7-1,0x the distance between the hind ocellus and the inner eye edge ( POL ) [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, distance between hind ocelli (ool) is 0,7-1,0x distance between hind ocellus and inner eye edge (pol)

5. Clypeus under edge convex [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, lower edge clypeus convex

6. Genal groove deep [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, genal groove deep

7. Occipital carina connected with hypostomal carina at mandible base [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, Occipital carina connected with hypostomal carina at mandible base

THORAX

1. Thorax and propodeum usually orange, in smaller specimen black to brown [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, thorax and propodeum brown to black

2. Mesonotum without clear medial longitudinal furrow [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, mesonotum seldom with medial longitudinal furrow

3. Mesonotum about 0,8-1,1x longer than wide [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, mesonotum length (l) is 0,8-1,1x width (b)

4. Scutellum not clearly limited, very short [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, scutellum not clearly limited, very short

5. Length mesonotum = 0,8-1,5x length area anterior [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, length mesonotum (lm) 0,8-1,5x length area anterior (la)

6. Slope rear mesonotum and propodeum unequal [6]
7. Propodeum about as high as mesonotum [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, slope mesonotum and propodeum rear unequal

8. Transverse carina on middle propodeum clear, straight not arched [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, transverse carina propodeum in middle clear and straight

9. Thigh (femur) hind leg 3,3-4,1x longer than high hoog (lateral view) [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, femur 3 length ±3,3-4,1x width (here ±3,8x) (lateral view)

ABDOMEN

1. Tergite 1 with dorsal lateral carinae, partly [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, tergite 1 with dorsal lateral carinae

2. Abdomen from tergite 2 black [6]
3. Abdomen densely haired [6]

Gelis bicolor ♀︎, abdomen black from tergite 2

4. Ovipositor tip with fine to clear teeth ventrally




References

1 Nederlands Soortenregister

2 Waarneming.nl

3 SCHWARZ, M. Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis THUNBERG mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis SCHMIEDEKNECHT (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 2.

4 Finch, Oliver-David. (2005). The parasitoid complex and parasitoid-induced mortality of spiders (Araneae) in a Central European woodland. Journal of Natural History - J NATUR HIST. 39. 2339-2354. 10.1080/00222930500101720.

5 SCHWARZ, Martin. Revision der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattungen Gelis Thunberg mit apteren Weibchen und Thaumatogelis Schmiedeknecht (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Teil 1. na, 1995.

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